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Ti Online Examination System Nulled 78

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ti online examination system nulled 78

The double-inversion preparation consists of two inversion pulses applied after the R-wave. The first inversion pulse is spatially non-selective inverting the magnetisation in the whole imaging volume while the second inversion pulse selectively re-inverts the magnetisation in the image slice to be acquired (Figure 11a). The magnetisation in the image slice is therefore restored to its original state while the magnetisation outside the image slice slowly recovers from its inverted state. Image excitation and readout is at the time when the originally inverted blood magnetisation outside the image slice recovers to zero and cannot produce a signal or is nulled. Depending on the heart-rate this normally occurs during mid-to-late diastole after an inversion time of 400-600 ms. While waiting for this magnetisation nulling, due to blood flow, the non-inverted blood in the image slice is replaced by the originally inverted blood during systole and early diastole, resulting in a dark-blood image. Image acquisition in mid-to-late diastole not only avoids rapid cardiac motion but it also allows the heart to go back to approximately the same position in the image slice as when the double-inversion pulses were applied earlier in the cycle. This technique is only suitable for single-slice and normally diastolic imaging, but it is compatible with a wide range of different heart-rates, since faster heart-rates require smaller inversion times in the preparation, and therefore the magnetisation preparation can still be accommodated in the shorter RR interval.

The TD (trigger delay) and TI (time of inversion) are chosen to acquire data at diastole and with null signal from viable myocardium (Figure 15a). Relatively bright signal is visible in non-viable regions of the myocardium, where Gd tends to accumulate, subsequently shortening the T1 in that region and providing high contrast against the nulled viable regions. In cases where the operator lacks experience, choosing the right TI might be challenging; a technique known as phase sensitive inversion recovery (PSIR) [38] can be used to enable adjustment of contrast and nulling and to relax the dependence on the TI value (Figure 15b). Single-shot bSSFP sequences can be used to accelerate imaging for patients with arrhythmia or those unable to breath-hold with conventional protocols, but these have the cost of lower spatial-resolution [39].

In LGE studies, choosing the correct inversion time (TI) to null normal myocardium can be challenging for inexperienced operators. The time varies from patient to patient and increases with time after the injection; typical inversion times are around 200-300 ms. At the correct TI, normal myocardium is nulled, while non-viable tissue is bright. With the standard magnitude reconstruction, if TI is too short or too long then normal myocardium will not be nulled, and the contrast between infarcted and normal myocardium is highly reduced (Figure 45). To overcome this problem, phase sensitive image reconstruction (PSIR) [38] allows the normal myocardium to be effectively nulled retrospectively whatever the TI by adjusting the image window and level on the display. 350c69d7ab

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