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Market Research Group

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Maksim Turov
Maksim Turov

Eco 32 Bit [UPDATED] Crack

By it's very nature, large format tile covers a bigger surface area per tile. In return, you get fewer grout joints on the floor and walls compared to smaller sized porcelain and ceramic tile. Fewer grout joints means less time scrubbing cracks, and less room for mold and mildew to build up.

Eco 32 bit crack


It is required that the variation for 10 feet of installation not exceed 1/8 of an inch. For floors that are not level, consider using a skim coat, patching or self-leveling system from TEC or Laticrete. You also may want to consider a crack isolation membrane, which are also offered by both TEC and Laticrete. Crack isolation membranes come in 3 types: sheeting, liquids and trowel-applied.

It is a great idea to purchase a complete installation system from one of our vendors. Both TEC and Laticrete offer systems that include crack isolation membrane, thinset and grout. Purchasing your tile installation system from the same vendor ensure the products work well together, and they can improve the warranty offered by the chosen vendor.

Laying our your large format tile prior to installation is important. It can help determine the patter that best suites your project. For large format tile, it is important to use a 1/3 (33%) offset opposed to the more traditional 1/2 "brick" pattern. The 1/3 offset helps to prevent lippage and cracking, while still creating a beautiful end result.

Earlier today, when cleaning my TWSBI Eco I noticed a strange thing on the section. A crack ! It's pretty recent, considering last time I cleaned it there was no issue. I only noticed it because some ink was stuck in said crack, as it is rather small.Should I immediately contact TWSBI ? I'm a bit concerned, as I never had any problem before this one.

Strategically perhaps it might make more sense if they made more non demonstrator ECOs, Diamond 580s, Vac 700, using a more reliable and cost effective opaque plastic, as not everyone is into demonstrators. After the initial novelty of seeing the ink sloshing wears out, you just want a reliable pen. Perhaps they can still offer the demonstrators, but at a higher cost using higher quality crack resistant plastic, like on the Pelikan M200 demonstrators, and up the price on the demonstrators to cover cost to produce them reliably that won't crack. That way they can continue to offer the economical ECOs, 580s etc at the current affordable prices, and charge a little more for the demonstrators using better material. Just my opinion.

I don't know much about plastics, but I assume in order for a plastic to be 100% natural clear, so the insides of a pen can be clearly seen, it requires the composition to be a very hard plastic, which can also be more brittle and easier to crack than a softer plastic used in pens like the Lamy Safari and Kaweco Sport. If this is the case, then TWSBI may be better off to offer non demonstrator pens with softer plastics that won't crack at the current price points, and use better material for the demonstrators at higher price point. The cracking issue surely is not something the company can afford to allow to continue tarnishing their reputation.

I've had the pen since May 2015, so I don't believe the limited amount of times I removed the nib had anything to do with the crack. I'm also very careful with the pen, knowing that TWSBI has a history of cracking.

Also, I remember seeing pictures of the Eco and the 580 under polarized light, which showed residual stress in the pens. While the Eco seemed to have a lot less than the 580, there still was some near the end of the section. Pretty much where mine cracked.

TWSBI say that the barrel cracks due to the nib and feed being inserted incorrectly, they have provided this illustration which may help others, it looks like the nib should fit into a recess in the feed.

There are no solvents in the walnut alkyd medium. It is an alcohol-based resin mixed with walnut oil. Walnut alkyd medium is a drying agent but the most important feature is increased adhesion between the paint film and the painting surface and the paint layers themselves. This makes for a more durable painting. We recommend to mix 1 -3 drops per extruded inch of paint. If you mix too much walnut alkyd medium with your paint, your paint will become sticky and will not dry and could possibly crack.

Long-term concrete cracking is unavoidable, and large openings impact concrete durability [4,5]. In hot and dry areas of the world, high air temperature, wind, and low relative humidity are also known to impact durability [6], as they can cause high plastic and drying shrinkage strains in concrete [7,8,9]. ACI 224R-01 [10] attributes early-age concrete cracks to excessive evaporation due to environmental conditions prior to concrete setting. The earlier concrete cracks develop, the shorter the serviceable life of concrete is expected [11,12]. Plastic shrinkage cracks are the earliest to appear, as they occur two-three hours after casting, prior to setting. Subsequent propagation of plastic shrinkage cracks will allow ingress of water and offensive agents such as chlorides and increase the possibility of concrete deterioration and corrosion of steel rebars [13,14]. Plastic shrinkage cracks not only reduce concrete durability but are also aesthetically undesirable [15].

Volume changes in concrete before the hardening of cement-based materials are the main cause of plastic shrinkage strain and cracking [16,17]. Volume loss at the plastic stage is caused by the consolidation of aggregates, bleeding, and evaporation of water. In its plastic state, when undisturbed, the denser solid particles settle and tend to sink down, whilst the lighter-weight materials, such as air and free water, begin to rise to the surface. Air escapes faster, but the escaping water, called bleeding water, escapes slower, and when it reaches the surface, it starts evaporating [18]. When the evaporation rate exceeds the bleeding rate, the concrete surface dries, and at this stage, the possibility of plastic shrinkage cracking increases [19,20,21]. Both environmental conditions and concrete mix composition affect plastic shrinkage, as seen in Figure 1 [22].

Hot weather casting is known to increase plastic shrinkage cracking [23]. It is widely accepted that plastic shrinkage starts when the evaporation rate exceeds the bleeding rate. Several studies reported that environmental conditions such as high air temperature, high wind speed, and low relative humidity have a direct effect on fresh and hardened concrete, as they also accelerate the final set time [24,25].

Eventual drying of the surface leads to a rise in capillary pressure converting it from a mildly compressive to a tensile pressure [27]. When capillary pressure inside the concrete builds up, plastic shrinkage cracking will occur.

To examine the possibility of plastic shrinkage cracking in concrete, ASTM C1579 [28] recommends a set of environmental conditions to be applied: air temperature 36 3 C, wind speed more than 4.7 m/s, and relative humidity around 30 10%. These environmental conditions were selected based on past experimental work [28]. However, Al-Gahtani et al. [30], working in the eastern part of Saudi Arabia, known for high temperature and humidity, found that concrete is more likely to crack with and without the environmental conditions proposed by [28,31].

Nabil et al. [32] examined substrate bases of concrete (50 95 365 mm) for plastic shrinkage cracking in an environmental chamber by covering concrete with plastic sheets. The concrete mixes were exposed to a temperature of 55 C during the first 8 h after casting and 50 C until the end of the test (24 h). The relative humidity (RH) was about 10%, and the wind speed was 10 km/h during the duration of the test. As expected, it was found that covering concrete with plastic sheets was more efficient in minimizing plastic shrinkage cracking and reducing loss of water compared with non-covering. Almutairi et al. [33] did a survey to determine the causes of all early-age cracking in concrete structures in Kuwait city and concluded that the environmental conditions were the main reason for most the concrete cracking, but also high concrete temperature. It was recommended to prevent early-age cracking. The concrete temperature should be controlled by adding ice to the mixing water.

Almusallam et al. [29] and Safiuddin et al. [34] found that plastic shrinkage cracks increase with an increase in the water/cement ratio and content of fine aggregate. Sayahi and Hedlund et al. [26] reported that micro-settlement cracks also occur on the surface of the concrete. Sulakshna et al. [35] examined a Poly Carboxylate Ether (PCE) as shrinkage reducing admixture (SRA) to self-compacting concrete of w/c ratio of about 0.45, with encouraging results.

Zhang and Xiao [36] investigated the effect of recycled sand as fine aggregate for 3D-printed mortar on plastic shrinkage cracks. The replacement ratios tested were at 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of natural sand, and we had to use high w/c (0.6) due to the high-water absorption of the recycled sand. The results showed that increased replacement ratios of recycled sand mortar resulted in increased plastic shrinkage cracking. Cohen et al. [37] found that the increase in fine content in concrete (such as fly ash, silica fume, slag, etc.) is not favorable in relation to micro and plastic shrinkage cracking. Lofgren and Esping et al. [38] came to the same conclusion when using silica fume. Zhao et al. [39] examined the influence of clay minerals in manufactured sand and found that as clay lowers the permeability, it also reduces the plastic tensile strength, which leads to an increase in plastic shrinkage cracking. 350c69d7ab


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